City of Stavanger, Norway

The Stavanger region is the energy capital of Europe; it holds the European status as smart city lighthouse (among only nine cities in Europe) and is the Norwegian Smart Care Cluster on welfare technology. Further, the region has a high level of digital service development and provision, due to its high speed digital infrastructure (more and more commonly 1GB in/out in households).

Eindhoven Triangulum

City of Eindhoven, Netherlands

Eindhoven is the centre of the “Brainport Region”, today one of the three top economic engines of The Netherlands, delivering about 14% of the national GDP. The Dutch consortium consists of five partners: VolkerWessels, Woonbedrijf, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, KPN and the Municipality of Eindhoven.


City of Manchester, UK

With a total population of 2.6 million People, it accounts for the second largest economy in the UK. Industry sectors such as business services, ICT, digital and biomedical sciences are key to economic growth in Greater Manchester in terms of new investment, job and GVA creation. Manchester is the economic powerhouse of the North West region of England.

Leipzig Triangulum

City of Leipzig, Germany

Leipzig is one of the most dynamic cities in the heart of Germany with approximately 550,000 inhabitants (2014). After years of population decline and an above-average unemployment rate, Leipzig started to regain popularity during the last years and is successfully turning from a post-industrial into a modern, knowledge-based economy.

Prague Triangulum

City of Prague, Czech Republic

Prague is one of the most attractive and successful regions within Central Europe. The combination of its rich cultural and historical heritage and its unique architectural and urbanistic value creates a phenomenon even on a global scale. Prague is the home and everyday living space for approximately 1.27 million inhabitants and concentrates approximately 12% of the Czech population. Prague generates approximately 1/4 of the national GDP and is approximately 50% above the national average in GDP per capita. Major universities and a number of research institutes (2/3 of public research institutions) are to be found in Prague, as well as the majority of businesses active in research and development.

Sabadell Triangulum

City of Sabadell, Spain

Sabadell is a Spanish City of 207,540 inhabitants (2014) and 37.87 km2, located in Catalonia (Spain). It belongs to Barcelona’s Metropolitan Region, where 68% of the Catalan population lives. In 2012 Sabadell pioneered the introduction of a Smart City programme in a structured, comprehensive and systematic approach complementing the implementation of new technologies for urban management. These measures included an increased level of 30% of LED installation in public lighting, of 13% of pneumatic waste collection, a 90% reduction of irrigation of parks and gardens and the implementation of remote management systems of air conditioning in 59 municipal buildings.

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Summary of Triangulum Replication

The replication work of Triangulum was based on three pillars:

•1. Demonstration projects in the three Lighthouse Cities helped to showcase how public and private partners can collaborate to create solutions that make cities better places to live.

•2. Triangulum assessed the demonstration projects to generate a robust evidence base describing their impacts and benefits.

•3. Triangulum developed a business model based upon the value of these benefits that enables their replication without public funding in the Follower Cities and beyond.

Main objectives of the Smart City Framework

• Streamline ICT integration of the three Lighthouse Cities to speed up planning and implementation.

• Design a replication framework and a decision- making tool for Smart City project development and implementation.

• Apply parts of this framework to accelerate the replication process in Follower Cities and beyond.

Three Phases of Triangulum (Credits: Fraunhofer)

The replication process is structured in two ways:

• A customer centric approach supporting the Implementation Strategies of the Follower Cities.

• A technology transfer approach that allows replication by cities and other partners.

Smart City Replication Framework (Credits: Fraunhofer)

Aim of the ICT Reference Architecture

• Provide a unified view and understanding of I CT strategies

• Identify interfaces between I CT components

• Enable exchange and interoperability of components/solutions

• Enable the replication of Smart City concepts between cities

ICT Reference Architecture (Credits: Fraunhofer FOKUS)

Replication Tool

As a tool for replication, Triangulum has developed the „Smart City Decision Making Tool“. The aim of this tool is to foster replication of Triangulum Use Cases by enabling cities to find relevant examples from Triangulum that fit their needs.

Information included:

• Description, location, time taken for planning and implementation, public participation model, business model details, stakeholders, etc.

• Additional insights gained from implementation like lessons learned and supporting factors

Triangulum Use Cases

As an example, the replication of the Use Case Blink was a real success story for Triangulum. The local Stavanger partner Lyse AS invited interested stakeholders from the consortium to Stavanger to demonstrate how Blink works and to further underline its potential. There were talks between Lyse As and the different city representatives as well as several demonstrations of the tool. After this first meeting, the stakeholders agreed to test the solution in the Triangulum Follower Cities Prague and Sabadell. There was thus a test run in both cities where minimal required adaptations were identified and subsequently realised by Lyse AS. As a result, the Use Case Blink could be successfully replicated in both Prague and Sabadell!

Summary of Triangulum Monitoring & Evaluation

Triangulum Impacts

The following summary gives an overview of Triangulum impacts at the level of the demonstrators (modules), across the project as a whole, and at city level. Currently, these are still draft impacts as we are still checking and calculating final values. Look up our final impact report when it becomes publicly available (Deliverable 2.6, to be published here), which will contain further updates and details.

Module Level Impacts

257 impact indicators have been finalised across the 26 modules being implemented in the Lighthouse Cities. The overall impacts in the Lighthouse cities are as follows:

For Manchester, energy trials in the final year carried out showing significant potential for reducing energy demand and lowering GHGs, 10,300 m2 optimised building space in MCC for smart energy interventions with over 400 tCO2e avoided GHGs, and a further 35 tCO2e avoided GHGs as a result of PV energy generation. The purchase of 10 Triangulum procured EVs has reduced GHG emissions by 35 tCO2e since 2016, and the overall impact of Triangulum has been to increase university share of EVs in vehicle fleets from 5% to 25%, with reduced GHG emissions of over 125 tCO2e, 11kg NOx, and 70kg CO. 4 cargo bikes have made 4,493 journeys and travelled 6,697 km over a three year period and saved 820 kgCO2e. The Manchester-I data platform hosts 9 real time data feeds and has 4 organisational users and 307 users that have downloaded data 427 times. Over 50 people have attended the Innovation Challenges hosted in 2018 and 2019.

For Eindhoven, in Strijp-S, biomass and Sanergy have replaced the old heating system and provided 100% renewable energy for heating. In 2019, 14% of all energy was generated by Sanergy. 14 EV charging stations have been implemented. The fiber-optic network has been expanded extensively with 350 home connections and 7,050 office connections. 40 sensors have been installed in Strijp-S. 28 SMEs from the iCity tender have been created, and €50m p.a. additional investment has been secured from partners since 2016. In Eckart-Vaartbroek, for social housing, 11,200 m2 buildings have been renovated, reducing GHG emissions by 20%. The estimated energy bill reduction in 2019 was 55%. For the digital renovation platform of Woonconnect, 284 households (29%) used it, and 174 made a plan (scenario) for the renovation of their home. The Eindhoven open data platform has been viewed 96,000 times per month in 2019 and actively downloaded nearly 4,000 times per month.

For Stavanger, 56 smart gateways have been installed in residential buildings, and the Central Energy Plant (CEP) in Stavanger Commune has avoided a total of 500 tCO2 p.a. which represents an 87.5% reduction in CO2 emissions. 5 battery buses have been deployed by the bus operator in the city, avoiding 135 tCO2 and 250 kg CO. A design competition for the Battery buses has been effective in engaging the public and school children in the project. The Cloud Data Platform has 6 internal users, hosts 4 datasets, and currently has 35 completed impact indicators. It has been used to deliver data analytics to improve efficiencies at the local bus operator.

Project level Impacts

  • The main Energy sector impacts are reduced local energy use with more demand being met by renewable sources, reduced energy costs, and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Across the project CO2 savings of more than 2000 tons have been achieved. Evidence from pilot work scaling potential benefits suggests that Triangulum interventions could reduce CO2 emissions across the Lighthouse Cities by 15% if they were rolled out across the city.
  • The main Mobility sector impacts are improvements in efficiency, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, NOx, CO). The main impacts across the city relate to the demonstration of different types of EVs in diverse settings (bus fleets, corporate and municipal fleets, SMEs) that has proven positive user experiences and stimulated further uptake in the Lighthouse cities.
  • The main ICT sector impacts are increases in the availability of open data, data downloads, and improvements to fibre optic networks. The three data hubs have been used to deliver value to partners and in Eindhoven and Manchester will be continuing beyond the project end date through follow on funding.

City Level Impacts

1. Process learning

Triangulum has led the development of the ‘process learning’ concept, which describes how partner organisations have learnt to do things in new, smarter ways. These impacts are critical in the current context of zero-carbon cities and the need to accelerate transitions to sustainability. They describe a new ‘Triangulum’ way of governing cities.

  • Partners tended to anticipate technical and economic benefits from being involved in the project but found that the main benefits were related to relationships and networks, capacity building, and process learning
  • Early stage communication between project partners is essential to build relationships and encourage communication between sectors and across cities
  • Encouraging as much face to face interaction as possible is key to sharing learning and experiences in a meaningful way
  • Replication within cities is just as important and commendable as replication in other cities

Our survey and interviews with partners revealed three priority areas to enable smart transformation:

  1. Ensure enabling policies and planning are in place that address the specific barriers identified through the demonstrators in order to allow demonstrations to be deployed at scale.
  2. Integrate smart solutions into procurement and operating budgets to ensure they can be purchased at scale.
  3. Facilitate and incentivise peer-to-peer learning among implementers across different organisations (building managers, energy engineers, fleet managers) as early as possible to promote data sharing and the adoption of shared (i.e. connected) solutions.

2. Leveraged investments

Spin-off initiatives have been a major city level impact of Triangulum, and reflect the development of a deeper form of partnership working within the Lighthouse Cities.

Triangulum Spin-off

Lighthouse and Follower Cities


Eindhoven, Netherlands

Eindhoven is the center of the “Brainport Region”. The Dutch Consortium consists of five partners: VolkerWessels, Woonbedrijf, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, KPN and the Municipality of Eindhoven.



Manchester, United Kingdom

The Greater Manchester conurbation with a total population of 2.7 million people accounts for the second largest economy in the UK and the economic powerhouse of the North West region of England.



Stavanger, Norway

The Stavanger region is the energy capital of Europe; it holds the European status as smart city lighthouse and is the Norwegian Smart Care Cluster on welfare technology.



Sabadell, Spain

Sabadell is a Spanish City of 207,540 inhabitants, located in Catalonia. It belongs to Barcelona’s Metropolitan Region, where 68% of the Catalan population lives.


Prague, Czech Republic

Prague is one of the most attractive regions within Central Europe. The combination of its cultural heritage and its architectural value creates a phenomenon.



Leipzig, Germany

Leipzig is one of the most dynamic cities in Germany. After years of population decline, it is successfully turning from a post-industrial into a knowledge-based economy.



Tianjin, China (Observer City)

Tianjin is a Chinese metropolitan area. Its economic output is currently twice that of the national average, and infrastructure projects are under development to support this growth.